As the name suggests, Open Coastal City (沿海开放城市) refers to a series of port cities in China's coastal areas that are open to foreign countries and regions. Certain special policies of Special Economic Zone are implemented when carrying out international economic activities in these cities. Open Coastal City is also an extension of Special Economic Zone, following Deng Xiaoping’s initiative on opening to the outside world. It encourages international economic cooperation and technology exchange. In 1984, Dalian, Qinhuangdao, Tianjin, Yantai, Qingdao, Lianyungang, Nantong, Shanghai, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Zhanjiang, and Beihai were approved by the State Council as the first batch of open coastal cities in China. After that, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the Hokkien Golden Triangle, as well as the Liaodong Peninsula and Jiaodong Peninsula have become coastal economic open areas. These open coastal cities have advantages in terms of geographic location, natural resources, economic foundation and technical management.