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Have you ever wondered how and why Chinese company English names are chosen?
Many articles have been written discussing how foreign companies chose their Chinese name, but there has been very little analysis about the opposite situation.
China Checkup decided to take a closer look at this issue. Our research has identified how and why Chinese company English names are picked and we have categorized the different approaches Chinese companies have taken.
Actually most Chinese companies don't have an English name - they are small shops, restaurants and services with only Chinese customers in China. They simply do not require an English name.
Companies which are dealing with foreign companies, and foreigners in general, will have an English name however, and these are the companies which you will encounter when doing business in China.
One key reason why such Chinese companies have an English name is simply that they want to get paid! The vast majority of foreign customers, and their banks, are unable to read and write Chinese so having an English name means they can accept payments via international transfers systems such as SWIFT.
Before we jump in and introduce our findings, we quickly need to explain that in this article we are focusing on Chinese companies' "Chosen Name".
For example the "Alibaba" (阿里巴巴) in "Alibaba Group Holding Limited" (阿里巴巴集团控股有限公司). See more on how Chinese company names are structured here.
After spending much time looking into and discussing this issue, we have created a system to classify the different types of Chinese company English names, which we will introduce in this article.
We found that, broadly speaking, nearly all Chinese companies choose an English name which fits into one of these 4 main categories:
Further to that we identified the 8 most common methodologies that Chinese companies use for choosing their "English name" - these range from simply writing their company's Chinese name in Pinyin, to inventing a somewhat misleading brand new word seemingly unrelated to their Chinese name!
In this table it is easy to identify which of the 8 methodologies are applicable to each of the 4 name categories.
We're aware that this is probably getting a little complicated by now, especially if you don't read Chinese, so we have provided an example of a Chinese company for each combination.
English Compound Names
Chinese Name in Pinyin
e.g. Huawei (华为 / huá wéi)
Chinese Name using Non-Pinyin System
e.g. Tsingtao (青岛 / qīng dǎo)
Chinese Name not in Mandarin
e.g. Luk Fook (六福 / liù fú)
Initials of Chinese Name in Pinyin
e.g. JD (京东 / jīng dōng)
Initials of Translation into English
e.g. ICBC (中国工商银行 / Industrial and Commercial Bank of China)
Translation into English
e.g. Great Wall (长城 / lit. "Great Wall")
Translation into English Compound Name
e.g. Evergrande (恒大 / lit. "Ever Grand")
Sound Adaption into English Word
e.g. Belle (百丽 / bǎi lì)
Sound Adaption into English Compound Name
e.g. Mobike (摩拜 / mó bài)
Sound Adaption into Invented Word
e.g. Midea (美的 / měi dì)
Unrelated English Word
e.g. Warrior (回力 / huí lì)
An Unrelated English Compound Name
e.g. Tencent (腾讯 / téng xùn)
Unrelated Invented Word
e.g. Lenovo (联想 / lián xiǎng)
English Name of Parent Company
e.g. Apple (苹果 / píng guǒ)
English Compound Name of Parent Company
e.g. Starbucks (星巴克 / xīng bā kè)
Invented Name of Parent Company
e.g. Pepsi (百事 / bǎi shì)
Below is an explanation and further examples for each category of Chinese company English name:
These are the names which are effectively still Chinese names, just written using the Latin alphabet. We identified 4 different methods they follow:
These companies have an English name which is the same as their Chinese name, and written in standard Pinyin.
Although pinyin is the official method for transliterating Chinese into English, it is not the only one. These names each follow a different transliteration system.
This category is more applicable to companies based in Hong Kong or Guangdong province where Cantonese is commonly used.
This approach takes the initials of the company's name in pinyin to be their English name.
Many Chinese companies choose an English word or a combination of English words to be their company's English name. However there are many different ways they go about this:
First their Chinese name is translated into English, then the initials of that name are used to form a new English company name.
This is one of the most common and sensible methods - the English name is simply a translation of their company's Chinese name.
Sometimes a Chinese company's official name sounds similar to an English word and this word is then chosen to be the company's English name.
In many cases names chosen by sound adaption are no accident - many Chinese companies choose their official name because it sounds like an English word.
These names are comprised of one or more English words but have no direct connection to the company's official Chinese name.
When foreign companies establish an entity in China they need to do so under a new Chinese company name. It naturally follows though that they continue to use their original English name for international business.
Other Chinese companies choose an English compound name to be their company's English name. These are names which are made up of two or more English words (just like "Micro-Soft" or "Face-Book").
These names are usually derived by translating each character from the Chinese chosen name and combining to make a new English name.
In these cases the company's chosen name in Chinese is adapted to create an English compound name.
Some English compound names are chosen for branding purposes or simply because they sound unique and cool. There is no direct correlation between their Chinese and English name.
This category is specific to foreign companies with English compound names that have entered the Chinese market.
Making up a new word to use as a company name isn't anything new - just ask Google or Ikea! Chinese companies are no different and they can be very inventive when it comes to creating a new English brand or company name.
Sometimes a Chinese company's name just doesn't sound quite right in English, but if they are just adjusted a little bit then....
It is hard to be sure but this is how we think these English names were created - by making a small adjustment to their Chinese name to create a new word.
These names are all invented words which seemingly have no relation to the official Chinese name.
This is a special category for foreign companies in China with invented English names.
Not all Chinese company English names fit neatly into our categorization system and for many companies an argument can be made for inclusion in multiple categories.
Whilst researching this subject we found a few special cases which we found to be quite interesting:
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